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Aquaculture wastewater

End use application

Our Attapulgite clay can be modified and activated to remove heavy metals due to:

  • high surface area

  • high absorbent and adsorption properties

  • low cost

  • environmental compatibility

  • option for higher iron composition with our redder 'G2' Attapulgite clay

End use application:

  • High regeneration capacity

  • Aquaculture wastewater treatment

  • Anoxic filtration system

Biological Purification

Antibiotic and heavy metal pollutants are increasingly detected in water due to the continuous development of the livestock and poultry industry globally


Especially, manure wastewater has posed serious threats to ecological and human health due to the overuse of feed additives and antibiotics during the breeding process

Heavy metals (e.g., copper) were also widely applied as feed additives in fodder to accelerate animal growth. Nevertheless, these additives usually tend to contain more copper content than animals demand, coupled with lower digestibility in poultry, so most copper as a result is released into the environment along with metabolites

How does it work?

What is "Anoxic Filtration Systems"?

Based on existing research by Dr Kevin Novak, Anoxic Filtration System refers to a biological filtration system that removes ammonia from the water using the combination of natural process of baked Attapulgite clays and laterite with has a high iron content. 

This process and system could be applicable for personal hobbyists, commercial and industrial fisheries, aquariums, pond, fountain and water management systems and filtration.

Dr Novak claims that his pond is over 21 years old and the Koi in it are as old, a beta testing pond that he conducts experiments is over 15 years old, and its Koi are just as old.

Dr Kevin Novak’s link to Anoxic Filtration can be read here: 

General guidance to build an Anoxic Filtration System

  1. Fill aquarium with Attapulgite clay, leaving small impression in the center of the aquarium;

  2. Pour some laterite into the centre, then mix the Attapulgite clay (and laterite) in the center of the aquarium;

  3. Place only one layer of pond pebbles on the top to keep the Attapulgite clay from floating up after submerging it into the pond.

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